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The Ape in the Mirror– Primates and Human Nature– Doubting the Chimpanzee Model– In Search of Primate Continuity5. The natural world lies below and beneath us, a cause for shame, disgust, or alarm; something smelly and messy to be hidden behind closed doors, drawn curtains, and minty freshness. A theory of leadership in human cooperative groups Journal of Theoretical Biology Available online 2 June 2010. Voluntary or 'integrative' models, on the other hand, suggest that rank differentiation—the differentiation of leader from follower, ruler from ruled, or state from subject—may sometimes be preferred over more egalitarian social arrangements as a solution to the challenges of life in social groups, such as conflict over resources, coordination failures, and free-riding in cooperative relationships. In an endnote in his 1996 book, , he writes, “On the basis of her reading of the literature, Power (1991) has argued that provisioning at some field sites (such as Gombe’s banana camp) turned the chimpanzees more violent and less egalitarian, and thus changed the ‘tone’ of relationships both within and between communities. Borofsky (2005) offers a balanced account of the controversy and the context in which it occurred.
We shared a common ancestor with two of these apes—bonobos and chimps—just five million years ago. Readers with mental images of Sioux (Lakota) chiefs with eagle-feather war bonnets rippling in the wind should keep in mind that in the generations before first contact with whites, disease spread through many tribes and the arrival of horses brought severe cultural disruptions, leading to conflict between groups that had been at peace previously (see Brown, 1970/2001).25. By comparison, Chagnon’s total time among the Yanomami adds up to about five years.
At first blush, this may seem an overstatement, but it’s a truth that should have become common knowledge long ago. We propose that the effort of a leader can reduce the likelihood that cooperation fails due to free-riding or coordination errors, and that under some circumstances, individuals would prefer to cooperate in a group under the supervision of a leader who receives a share of the group's productivity than to work in an unsupervised group. Pinker’s talk was based upon an argument he presents in The Blank Slate (2002), particularly in the last few pages of the third chapter. You might want to search Sue Savage-Rumbaugh’s talks on bonobos, for example. These questions threaten to recast a great deal of data concerning chimpanzee social interactions—of great interest to de Waal, one of the world’s leading authorities on chimpanzee behavior and a man whose scholarship demonstrates deep respect for critical analysis.19.