This article develops and uses methodologies to: (1) measure equity in the distribution of access to health services; and (2) measure the impact of health insurance programs on equity.
The article proposes two egalitarian-based indicators for measuring equity in terms of access to health care — a concentration coefficient derived from the Gini coefficient, and the Atkinson distributional measure — and also employs a weighted Utilitarian social welfare function to measure overall levels of access.
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that higher education providers are required to meet to ensure: that appropriate and effective teaching, support, assessment and learning resources are provided for students; that the learning opportunities provided are monitored; and that the provider considers how to improve them.
The article defines access as the use of health care by individuals with a need for care; need is measured as self-reported morbidity.